definitions to make sure you and I are thinking similarly;
way we do or say things and the things we are prepared to do or say.
bit we see above the waterline!
Attitudes: a stance we take and how a we feel and what we think (based on our values) regarding situations and individuals and our interactions between the environment and other people
Values: a set of moral standards or rules (based on our beliefs) that govern they way we make judgements regarding the goodness or badness of factors in our environment and that influence what we set as the norms of a correct existence.
Beliefs: an unquestioning view on how things should be and what is important based on our cultural assumptions and the ‘truth’ of our existence as a social being that we consciously or subconsciously buy in to.
Cultural assumptions: ‘the truth’ regarding our existence and our place in the world inherited and reinforced through indoctrination (usually at an early age) and based on the history and traditions of our predecessors.
is ‘bad’ and best
avoided and everyone has equal rights and interdependence exists
less and more powerful people.
Parents and children treat each other as ‘equals’ and teachers develop students’ initiative and are experts who transfer impersonal truths.
Hierarchy in organizations means an inequality of roles established for convenience and decentralization is popular.
Subordinates expect to be consulted and the ideal boss is a competent democrat.
Local management theories focus on role of employees.
Managers’ privileges and status symbols are frowned upon.
Skills, wealth, power, and status need not go together and power is based on formal position, expertise and the ability to give rewards and the use of power should be legitimate and is subject to criteria of good and evil.
is natural and desired and the powerful have privileges and less
people should be dependent on the more powerful.
Parents teach obedience and children show respect and teachers are expected to take initiative and are gurus who transfer personal wisdom.
Hierarchy in organizations reflects a natural state of human inequality and centralization is popular.
Subordinates expect to be told what to do; the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat, good father.
Local management theories focus on role of managers.
Managers’ privileges and status symbols are expected/popular.
Skills, wealth, power, and status should go to together and power is based on association with powerful individuals, charisma and the ability to use force; might prevails over right; whoever holds the power is right and good.
grows up to look after him/herself and his/her immediate
family only, with identity is based in the individual who in turn
The purpose of education is learning how to learn and academic qualifications increase economic worth and self-respect.
Relationship employer/employee is a contract supposed to be based on mutual advantage.
Hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be based on competence and rules only.
Management is of individuals, task prevails over relationship and individual interests prevail over collective interests.
Everyone has a right to privacy and is expected to have a private
Ideologies of individual freedom prevail over those of equality and an individual’s self-actualisation (fulfilment) is an ultimate goal.
are born into extended
families that protect them in exchange for loyalty; identity is based
ones social network and individuals think ‘we’.
Harmony should be maintained and direct confrontations are avoided, there are times when nothing should be said.
Purpose of education is learning how to do and qualifications are seen as important to provide entry to higher status groups.
Relationship employer/employee is perceived in moral terms, like a family link.
Hiring, and promotion decisions take employees' in-group into account
Management is management of groups, relationship prevails over task and collective interests prevail over individual interests.
Private life is invaded by group and opinions predetermined by group membership.
Ideologies of equality prevail over those of individual freedom and harmony and consensus in society are ultimate goals.
‘Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It ultimately refers to a persons search for truth and indicates to what extent members feel either comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured, novel, unknown, surprising or different from usual situations. Individuals from uncertainty accepting cultures are more tolerant of differing opinions; they try to have as few rules as possible. People within these cultures are more matter-of-fact, thoughtful and reflective and not expected by others in their environment to express emotions’. The opposite type uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures and tend to believe in one absolute truth’; 'there can only be one truth and we have it'. ‘People in uncertainty avoiding cultures are also more emotional and motivated by inner nervous energy’.
calm acceptance of the
unknown, risk taking is accepted and often seen as desirable.
Tolerance is shown toward those with differing opinions and standards of behaviour and individual or group differences or beliefs are not seen as a threat.
Individuals feel relatively safe and secure and time focus is now and the future.
Relationship with the environment is domination or harmony and individual activity is about doing or controlling.
People are seen as either good or a mixture of good and bad and individuals or groups see themselves as responsible for their own wellbeing.
Space is seen as private or a mixture of public and private.
Empowerment is accepted and initiative is shown and mistakes are seen as learning.
aggressiveness induced by anxiety about an uncertain future.
Low tolerance for deviant ideas/ behaviour, formal rules and mechanisms to reduce risk and members strive to believe in a common set of absolute truths.
Individuals feel relatively threatened and time focus is the past and now.
Relationship with the environment is subjugation or at best harmony and individual activity is about being.
People are seen as evil or at best a mixture of good and bad and the group or the hierarchy determines wellbeing.
Space is public.
Instructions are sought, responsibility avoided and mistakes are seen as ‘sins’ that will exact punishment.
Money and material gain is desirable.
Relationships and group members’ welfare is paramount.
Long-term versus short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars. It can be said to deal with virtue regardless of truth. Values associated with long-term orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with short-term orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage. The following is my interpretation of the consequences.
Only ‘now’ exists and we should live for now and ourselves.
Consumption and spending is acceptable.
Success is a result of applied intelligence and competence. face.
The demands of the user or customer are the most important.
Tradition is of little interest.
We should work for the future and for the next generation.
Thrift and saving for the future is a virtue.
Perseverance will ultimately lead to success; failure leads to shame and loss of face.
Following the demands of the hierarchy is desirable.
Tradition is important.
Obviously if you manage/lead, a group of people with a collective attitude, that see you the boss as all-powerful, who value relationships over material gain and that ‘suffer’ from high uncertainty avoidance, they are going to become quite unsettled if you casually announce say, a company, division or department restructure.
· No one is an expert in your, culture not even you
· No one can be an expert on someone else’s culture
· Don’t make assumptions about people, ask questions
· Never try to tell someone about their culture… ask
· Moral judgements on a persons value based on culture are best left to the stupid
· Another culture may not be better or worse, just different
A major point for you to consider…
Generalising about people based on preconceived ideas, cultural background, gender, race, technical or professional disciplines and career choices or on any other basis you can think of has no place in a manager’s mind or heart. Although this chapter offers for your consideration a number of ideas based on research and to some extent categorizes or groups people by such things as cultural predispositions, personality type, or ego states this is done purely to demonstrate the complexity of individuals. As an astute manager you will always need to see people as infinitely complex individuals that have their own hopes, desires and motivations that will be constantly changing as an almost unlimited variety of personal and business situations evolve.
“A summary of my ideas about national culture differences” - Geert H. Hofstede, http://cwis.kub.nl/~fsw_2/iric/hofstede/page3.htm, (permissions Geert Hofstede BV at fax +31-26-361-1021 or email@example.com
Narcissistic Leaders’ (Article) - Michael Maccoby (anthropologist and psychotherapist), Harvard business Review/OnPoint, January-February 2000.
Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy - Berne, Eric (1961), Grove Press, New York.
Games people play - Berne, Eric (1964), Grove Press, New York.
The ITAA Development Committee Task Force on Transactional Analysis Core Concepts, http://www.itaa-net.org/resrcsonline.htm - http://www.claudesteiner.com/core.htm, Claude Steiner, Chair, August 2000
I’m OK Your OK – Thomas A. Harris – Harper and Row (Avon books Inc). - 1973
The Power To Succeed: More Principles For Powerful Living, Book II - Dr. Joe Rubino - Vision Works Publishing 47A Sheffield Rd. Boxford, MA 01921 Phone: 978/887-3125, Fax: 630/982-2134, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.VisionWorksPublishing.com
A Theory of Human Motivation - A. H. Maslow (1943) - Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
The Motivation to Work - Frederick Herzberg, Mausner, B, & Snyderman, B.B. (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1959
One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? – Frederick Herzberg Harvard Business Review: (Sept./Oct. 1987)
The Human Side of the Enterprise – Douglas McGregor, McGraw Hill New York 1960
Existence, Relatedness, and Growth; Human Needs in Organizational Settings
- http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/search-handle-url/index=books&field-author=Alderfer,%20Clayton%20P./104-3787426-8056713 - Clayton P. Alderfer, Publisher: New York Free Press; March 1972
Human Motivation – by David C. McClelland, Publisher, Scott Foresman & Co; (August 1983)
Achievement Motivation - David C. McClelland, Publisher: Irvington Publishers, Dec. 1992
- http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_06_mcclelland.html" - Accel-Team.Com
Power Is Still the Great Motivator, With a Difference! - David H. Burnham, http://www.burnhamrosen.com/Power_is_Still.shtml, © 2002 Burnham Rosen Group
Cross-Task Generalization of Intrinsic Motivation Effects - MICHAEL E. ENZLE, University of Alberta, EDWARD F. WRIGHT, St. Francis Xavier University, ISABEL M. REDONDO, Dalhousie University, - http://www.cpa.ca/cjbsnew/1996/ful_enzle.html
Goal Setting for Individuals, Groups, and Organizations - Edwin A. Locke, Publisher: Merrill Pub Co April 1984
Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique That Works! – Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham: Prentice Hall Trade; January 1984
Motivation MGMT 352 – Organization & Human Resource Management, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/rau/motivation.htm
Organizational Behaviour, Chapter 6, pages 226 – 231 - Stephen P. Robbins, Prentice Hall International Editions 7th Edition 1996
Expectancy theory of Motivation - OBNotes.htm by WILF H. RATZBURG http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1650/htmlexpectancy.html
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